“One is struck by the penetration of economic
power, its ubiquitous presence, but
also by its limits and indeed by its inferiority
as compared to the power of the state.
Fritz Stern, Gold and Iron,
  p. xvii


In the course of researching and writing this dissertation, I benefited from the support and assistance of various institutions and individuals. A Clara and Krikor Zohrab Fellowship from Columbia University made possible a trip to Europe. I did research at the Mekhitarist Library at San Lazzaro in Venice where Fr. Nerses Nersessian and Fr. Gomidas Manougian helped me in various ways. At the Mekhitarist Library in Vienna, the Abbot of the Congregation, Fr. Grigoris Manian, made available the treasures of their unique Armenian periodical collection. Furthermore, I benefited from the collections of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis­sions, at Houghton Library of Harvard University.

I was fortunate to have as my sponsor and advisor Prof. Nina Garsoian whose advice, suggestions and incisive observations greatly improved the quality of this study. I owe her an unusual debt of gratitude. I would also like to express my appreciation to Prof. Krikor Maksoudian who assisted me continuously and with extreme dedication, especially in the early stages of this work. Ms. Ani Atamian, a friend and colleague, helped me in the rea­ding and preparation of the manuscript while I was in Beirut, Lebanon. From the inception to the completion of the final draft, Prof. Khachig Tololyan of Wesleyan University, demonstrated a personal interest and a close concern for my work; I am very grateful to him for his editorial assistance coupled with very useful and appropriate comments and keen observations.

To Anais, my wife, who endured with me the hardships, as well as shared the joys, of working on this dissertation, I would say only: Were it not for her unfailing support, I would not have reached this stage.